Architecture is often called a “still melody”. Many great ancient civilizations are associated with their architectural creations that remain to this day. So let’s get acquainted with the history of architecture of various countries and people, creations of numerous ancient and modern builders and take a look at some architectural styles and their main differences, all in chronological order.

Ancient Egypt Architecture

Ancient Egypt ArchitectureAncient Egypt Architecture

It is based on architecture of ancient Egypt and includes various temples, shrines of Luxor & pyramids located near the Nile River. Religious temples and other massive buildings are often characterized by their incline walls with few openings.


Ancient Greek Architecture

The Greeks erected numerous churches used for sacrificial rites. According to Greek mythology, the gods lived atop the mount Olympus while people inhabited its base. So the cities were built in the same fashion.

The hill surrounded by city usually housed a god patron temple. Such hills were called “acropoleis”.

“Order”, a post-and-beam system is considered a true achievement of Greek city building. It consisted of vertical columns, pilasters and overlays.

The development of ancient Greek architecture is divided into 3 periods:

  • Archaic(VIII – VI BC), often described by inclusion of Doric & ionic orders

Ancient Greek Architecture

A Doric column is very heavy and slightly thickened at the middle. Its top is called a “capital” and made of 2 stone slabs; the bottom one is circular while the other one is quadratic.

The ceiling resting on the columns is decorated with an ornamental frieze across its perimeter. Ionic columns are much thinner and more gallant compared to Doric columns. Each one has its own base and the middle part of their capital looks like the rams horns, called volutas.

 Ancient Greek Architecture

Ancient Greek Architecture


  • Classic Period(V BC),

During the classic period architecture became more flamboyant and included more capitals decorated with floral motifs. This gave birth to a Corinthian order, and its core feature – a much more flowery look.

Ancient Greek ArchitectureAncient Greek Architecture


  • Hellenistic Period(IV – I BC)

Hellenistic architecture is characterized by including all 3 orders, but the columns got even more gallant, had even deeper grooves, and Corinthian capitals became even more full of floral ornaments dominated by acanthus leaves.

We continue the description of architectural styles and their main differences.

Ancient Rome Architecture

Ancient Rome left a massive heritage for the entire mankind, here are 3 great architectural discoveries originated in Rome:

  • Concrete

The roman concrete consisted of wild & lime stones, volcanic ash and pumice. They poured it in layers and tamped it down. Once it hardened the entire construction was reveted with either marble or hewn stone. As a result all structures were both durable and beautiful at the same time.


Ancient Rome ArchitectureAncient Rome Architecture

  • Arches

Arch shape is an integral part of Roman architecture. The romans would build a new monumental structure, a Triumphal arch in honor of all imperial victories and conquests.

Ancient Rome Architecture

Coliseum is an ageless symbol of Rome. It’s the biggest and the most beautiful stadium of the classical age and it was built in a shape of amphitheater to popularize gladiator duels. Its arena is surrounded by a wall of short and tall arches placed in 3 tiers on top of each other. Each floor also includes numerous columns of various styles. The first has Doric ones, the second ionic and the third Corinthian. It’s a known fact that Roman architecture was often inspired by the architecture of ancient Greece.

  • Dome

The oldest currently surviving dome is located in The Pantheon of Rome. The legend has it that in order to build the dome the entire building was covered in mud mixed with gold coins to work as a formwork of sorts. And once the construction was complete, the common folk were allowed to take the soil along with all the reaches inside. It is said that the walls were clean within a day.

Architectural styles

The art of architecture has appeared many ages ago and shares the same long history as mankind itself. Each new step in development of civilizations included a unique architectural style that would symbolize it and its main features for years to come.

In this short article you learned about the architectural styles of archaic and ancient ages and their main differences.